Jerusalem, the capital of Israel, is home to the Jewish, Christian, Muslim, and Armenian communities. However, since the 1800s, there has been a Jewish majority. 

At the end of the year 2011, the population of Jerusalem was estimated to be around 801,000- 64% of the population being Jews and ‘others’, while 36% being Arabs. More specifically, 497,000 were Jews; 281,000-Muslims; 14,000-Christians and 9,000 (no religious association).  Interestingly, a decline in Jerusalem’s Jewish population has become evident over the years; with a simultaneous increase in the Arab, for the record suggests that the Jewish percentage fell from 74% to 72% in 1960's-80s, and from 68% to 64% in 2000-2010. Conversely, the Arab percentage increased from 26% to 28%, and then from 32% to 36%. Additionally, the said Arab percentage is significantly higher as compared to the population in other Israeli cities. To put it simply, during 1967-2011, the population of Jerusalem increased by 200 percent, with the Jewish population growing by 157 percent and the Arab by 327 percent.  

As per the data available, 474,000 Jews and Arabs (making up to 60 percent of the population of Jerusalem) were estimated to have lived in the areas added in 1967 to Jerusalem. With 192,000 Jews and ‘others’, and 280,900 Arabs estimated to have lived in the neighborhood of those areas- to the percentage of 41 and 59 respectively. 

The increase in population of Jerusalem, evidenced by statistics, may be attributed to certain factors like the high birth rates in Jerusalem at 28.5 births per 1000 persons as compared to the rate of 21.5 births in Israel largely. With regard to the Arab-Jew ratio, the Arab birthrate of Jerusalem is higher than the Jewish, with 30.0 and 27.6 births per 1000 persons respectively. 

Another contributing factor to an increased population of Jerusalem might be the mortality rate, as at the rate of 4.3 deaths per 1000 persons, Jerusalem’s rate remains lower in comparison to Israel as a whole. Jerusalem’s Arab population’s mortality rate of 2.7 deaths per 1000 persons, similarly, is significantly lower than that of the Jewish i.e. 5.2 deaths. Being Israel’s most populated city, Jerusalem, has always been regarded as the Jews’ adobe. However, due to various factors- like mortality rate and migration- at play, the Jew to Arab ratio of the population (of 64% to 36%) is at risk as, according to statistics, the Arab’s population is increasing while the Jewish's is decreasing.